Soccer Exercise Library

September 10, 2017 | Author: breezeinthewind | Category: Anatomical Terms Of Motion, Heart Rate, Dance Science, Sports, Human Anatomy
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~ Soccer Exercise Library ~

Important Note Please Read This Before Going On Soccer is not without risk. Nor is physical training. Even when all the “rules” are followed to the letter, injuries and accidents can occur. That’s the nature of sport and life. A book, no matter how comprehensive, can never cover every angle and every individual’s unique makeup, previous history and current situation. With that in mind… The information within these pages is intended as an educational resource only. That means you should seek the advice of a qualified Physician, in person, before you or any soccer player under your care attempts any of the exercises, drills or programs within this book. Of course, you should always discontinue any exercise that causes you pain or severe discomfort and consult a medical expert. If you, or the players you supervise, suffer (or have in the past) from any sports, back, joint or musculoskeletal injuries, you should seek the advice of a qualified Physical Therapist. They can advise you which exercises may aggravate existing injuries or cause a recurrence of previous ones. The training programs and exercises contained within this book are aimed at physically mature players. Physically mature in this instance is defined as “players whose bones have stopped growing – typically between ages 16 and 21”. This book also assumes players have been shown and understand correct technique. Many of the exercises, drills and programs within this book are not suitable for children. The author and the publisher of this book have made their best effort to produce a high quality, informative and helpful resource. But they make no representation or warranties of any kind with regard to the completeness, accuracy or safety of the contents of the book. They accept no liability of any kind for losses or damages caused or alleged to be caused directly, or indirectly, from using the information contained within

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~ Soccer Exercise Library ~

TABLE OF CONTENTS Section

Title

Aerobic & anaerobic endurance drills Aerobic endurance drills

Page

2 3

Continuous training drills

3

Interval training drills

6

Anaerobic endurance drills

12

Strength & power exercises

17

Foundational strength exercises

18

Program 1 – beginner

19

Program 2 – advanced

21

Program 3 – bodyweight

23

Program 4 – dumbbells & barbells

26

Program 5 – resistance machines

29

Maximal strength exercises

31

Program 1 – beginner

32

Program 2 – advanced

34

Strength endurance exercises

36

Program 1 – beginner

37

Program 2 – advanced

39

Program 3 – bodyweight

41

Plyometric exercises

43

Program 1 – beginner

44

Program 2 – advanced

46

Speed & agility drills

49

Speed drills

50

Agility drills

54

Flexibility exercises

63

Static stretching exercises

64

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~ Soccer Exercise Library ~

Agility & quickness drills

68

Fitness tests

71

Aerobic endurance tests

72

Strength & power tests

75

Speed & agility tests

79

Flexibility tests

82

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Soccer Exercise Library

Introduction

INTRODUCTION This Soccer Exercise Library lists and describes all the drills and exercises found in Total Soccer Fitness. It also contains many additional exercises and drills that you can substitute at your own discretion. Of course there is no end to number of drills that you can implement into your program and with enough examples, designing your own exercises should become straightforward. There are two ways to use the drills and exercises in this library… 1. Cherry-pick those that appeal to you most and plug them into your own sessions. This is a suitable option if you are already familiar with conditioning principles and know how many drills (and for how long) to incorporate into a session. 2. Use them according to the guidelines in each section of Total Soccer Conditioning (in particular section 7 – Planning Your Soccer Conditioning Program). Some drills are suitable for teams only and some are suitable for individuals and pairs as well. Where applicable the drills have been split into those without a ball and those with a ball. Incorporating a ball makes sense because it is the closest replication to the game. However, it is good to mix and match drills that do and don’t use a ball. Some speed and agility exercises will become less effective for example, if anything hinders the player from producing his or her maximum speed.

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SEC TIO N 1

AEROBIC & ANAEROBIC ENDURANCE DRILLS

Soccer Exercise Library

Aerobic & Anaerobic Endurance Drills

AEROBIC ENDURANCE DRILLS Aerobic endurance conditioning improves your body’s ability to deliver and use oxygen. It will allow you to sustain an overall higher rate of work during the ninety minutes. You will also recover more quickly after high intensity exercise Aerobic endurance drills are divided into two categories, which are continuous training drills and interval training drills.

Continuous Training Drills Continuous type training is less strenuous and useful for early pre-season when players return from the off-season break. It is also useful for active recovery the day after a tough match and for the off-season when rest is also important. See section 1.2 of Total Soccer Conditioning for more details.

Guidelines Continuous endurance sessions should last at least 20 minutes and ideally between 30 and 45 minutes. Where indicated, a single continuous training drill can be performed for 20 minutes. Alternatively you may wish to perform two drills for 10 minutes. Keep rest breaks between minimal. You should perform a warm up consisting of light aerobic exercise and dynamic stretching before moving on to these drills.

Drills With The Ball Drill #1 – One To One Marking Game (Team) Mark out an area roughly 30 x 40 yards with a goal 3 yards wide at either end. Form two teams of five players. The objective is to score as many times as possible shooting from any distance. Each team must mark the same opponent tightly throughout the game, which increases the fitness demands. Play continuously for 20 minutes. Variations: Limit the number of touches per player before the ball must be passed. Alternate who marks who every 5 minutes. Add in a neutral player who plays for the team in possession and who cannot score.

Drill #2 – Figure Running (Team & Individual) Mark out a course according to the diagram below. Split the team into four equal groups, with one group per station. On the coach’s command players must dribble a ball around the designated figure continuously for 5 minutes.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Aerobic & Anaerobic Endurance Drills

Players within each group should stagger their starts to allow a few yards room between each other. It is not a race and players should avoid overtaking. After 5 minutes each group immediately moves to the next station. Repeat until all four stations have been completed.

20 yards/meters between cones

10 yards/meters between cones

20 yards/meters between cones

10 yards/meters between cones

Variations: Also works well without a ball. Decrease the distance between cones to use as a speed and agility exercise (see speed & agility conditioning drills below). Drill #3 – Three V Three Keep Possession (Team) Mark out an area roughly 20 x 25 yards. Form two teams of three players. One team starts in possession of the ball and must keep it for as long as possible. Possession changes if the ball is intercepted or leaves the marked area. A goal is awarded for every 6 consecutive passes. Play continuously for 20 minutes. Variations: Limit the number of touches per player before the ball must be passed. Add in a neutral player who plays for the team in possession.

Drill #4 – Continuous Running With The Ball (Team & Individual) Each player is given a ball. The team runs in single file around the perimeter of a soccer pitch (or suitable large area) keeping the ball close to feet. On the coaches command the players perform different movements such as touching

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Soccer Exercise Library

Aerobic & Anaerobic Endurance Drills

the ground with their left hand, turning 360 degrees, jumping for a mock header, side-stepping for three steps etc. The ball must be kept in close proximity so that movements can be performed without the ball running too far away. Continue for 10 minutes. Variations: Increase the speed down one length of the pitch with minimal touches of the ball. Decrease the speed to a very slow jog down another side but ensuring players take lots of touches. A shorter, low-intensity version of this makes an excellent warm-up drill.

Drills Without The Ball Drill #5 – Continuous Running (Team & Individual) Run for 20 to 30 minutes at a continuous pace, preferably on grass. Intensity can be dictated by heart rate although it is by no means essential. Use the formula below (called the Karvonen formula) to calculate target heart rate. If a heart rate monitor is not available, stop every few minutes and take a pulse by placing two fingers on the radial artery (at the wrist just below the base of the thumb). Count for 15 seconds and multiply by four to get beats per minute. Calculating Target Heart Rate with the Karvonen Formula • • •

220 – age = maximum heart rate Maximum heart rate – resting heart rate = heart rate reserve (Heart rate reserve x 80%) + resting heart rate

For example, an 18 year old with a resting heart rate of 65 beats per minute (bpm) has a target heart rate as follows: • • •

Maximum heart = 202bpm (220-18) Heart rate reserve = 137bpm (202 – 65) Target heart rate = 175bpm (137 x 0.8 + 65)

Take 10bpm off this value for a training zone of 165-175bpm. Target heart rates are best for continuous runs because monitoring is easy and exercise is at a steady pace. For recovery runs (after hard games) use the same equation but multiply by 60% or 0.6 instead of 80%.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Aerobic & Anaerobic Endurance Drills

Drill #6 – Fartlek Training (Team & Individual) Fartlek training is an excellent conditioning method when players first return from a closed-season break. It is less monotonous than continuous running and more specific to soccer. It involves running for 20 to 30 minutes at varying paces and intensities. Here are three sample sessions suitable for soccer: Farltek Session A • Warm up with a steady jog for 10 minutes • Run hard for 3 minutes, jog slowly for 1 minute • Repeat 6-8 times • Cool down at a steady pace for 10 minutes Fartlek Session B • Warm up with a steady jog for 10 minutes • Run hard, for 75 seconds • Jog for 150 seconds • Run hard for 60 seconds • Jog for 120 seconds • Repeat 3-4 times • Cool down at a steady pace for 10 minutes Fartlek Session C • Warm up with a steady jog for 10 minutes • Jog for 60 seconds • Run hard (3/4 pace) for 90 seconds • Jog for 45 seconds • Sprint for 10 seconds • Jog for 30 seconds • Run backwards for 30 seconds • Walk for 30 seconds • Run hard for 60 seconds • Repeat 3-4 times • Cool down at a steady pace for 10 minutes

Interval Training Drills Interval type training is more intense and soccer-specific. After a few weeks of continuous training, interval training should predominate in the pre-season.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Aerobic & Anaerobic Endurance Drills

Drills With The Ball Drill #1 – Hoff Circuit (Team & Individual) Mark out a course according to the diagram below. From the start, dribble around the cones. Dribble up to hurdles passing the ball underneath and jumping over the top. Dribble around the next set of cones with fewer touches to increase speed. Dribble backwards for 10 meters to the gate, turn and dribble forwards back to start. Each player completes the circuit as quickly as possible keeping close possession of the ball. With a group of players stagger the start keeping at least 3 to 5 yards between each player. Complete 5 circuits back to back. Rest for 2 minutes and repeat for 2-3 sets.

30 meters 25 meters 7 meters 10 meters

7 meters

Hurdles 30-35cm high 10 meters

7.5 meters

10 meters

Cones 2 meters apart

Backward dribbling

10 meters

3 meter gate

15 meters

12 meters 10 yards/meters between cones START 30 meters

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Soccer Exercise Library

Aerobic & Anaerobic Endurance Drills

The precise measurements between cones are not important. They are important however if you are completing the Hoff fitness test as described in section 6. Variation: There are an infinite number of circuits you can devise. Try to incorporate diagonal or lateral movements and running backwards. Intricate skills should be avoided, as these will hinder the player from maintaining a high work rate.

Drill #2 – Diagonal Pitch Run (Team & Individual) Using the markings of a soccer pitch, start on the touchline at the halfway point and with the ball run ¾ pace to the corner flag. Run ¾ pace diagonally to the opposite side of the pitch at the half way point. Jog along the half way line for recovery back to the start. Continue by using the other half of the pitch without the ball (leave at start position). Repeat 3-5 times and rest for 2 minutes. Complete 2-3 sets in total or combine with another interval drill. Start

Jog Run ¾ pace For large groups of players send half the group off towards one corner flag and half to the opposite corner flag. Make sure players keep as tight together as possible. It helps to put the fittest player at the front!

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Soccer Exercise Library

Aerobic & Anaerobic Endurance Drills

Drill #3 – Penalty Area Run (Team & Individual) Using the penalty area markings start on one corner facing down the goal line. Run along the goal line to the corner of the penalty area. The coach or partner throws the ball to head or volley back (individuals can perform a mock header). Side-step leading with the left leg to the next corner. Run backwards to the next corner. Side-step back to the start and repeat for 1 minute. Rest for 60 seconds and repeat 3-5 times. This is one set. Rest for 2 minutes between sets and complete 2-3 sets in total.

Jog backwards

Side step

Side step

Coach or teammate feeds ball for header, pass or volley

Jog

This drill also works best with individuals and small groups of no more than four players. In a large team set up several areas similar in dimension to the penalty area.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Aerobic & Anaerobic Endurance Drills

Drills Without The Ball Drill #4 – Increasing Lap Run (Team & Individual) Use the markings of a soccer pitch for this drill. Start in one corner facing down the touchline. Jog three sides of the pitch and run ¾ pace down the final side (which should be the goal line) back to the start. Next, jog two sides of the pitch and run ¾ pace down two sides back to the start. Now jog one side and run ¾ pace down three sides. Jog one side again and finish with a ¾ jog around the entire pitch. This can be repeated for 2-3 sets or keep to just 1 set and combine with other interval drills.

START

FINISH

Jog Run ¾ pace Drill #5 – Half Pitch Run Starting on the goal line, run at ¾ pace to the half way line and back. Turn and repeat without stopping. Rest for 30 seconds by jogging on the spot or juggling a ball and repeat 3-5 times. This is 1 set. Complete 2-3 sets or combine with other drills in this section.

Drill #6 – The Running Matrix (Team & Individual) Mark out a course according to the diagram below. From the start, run ¾ pace to first cone. Jog to cone on left and return by running backwards. Jog forwards then sprint in a zigzag. Jog to right hand cone and return by running [ Page 10 ]

Soccer Exercise Library

Aerobic & Anaerobic Endurance Drills

backwards. Jog forwards and sprint in a zigzag. Jog 15 meters/yards and finish with a 30 meter/yard strong run. Jog 10 meters/yards to start. With a group of players stagger the start keeping at least 10 yards between each player. Complete 5 circuits back to back. Rest for 2 minutes and repeat for 23 sets.

15 meters/yards

30 meters/ yards

10 meters/yards

5 meters/yards 10 meters/yards START

Jog Run ¾ pace Jog forwards, run backwards Sprint Variation: A ball can easily be incorporated into this drill. However a more effective conditioning response is achieved without a ball – especially at the sharp zigzags. If a ball is used it could be left at the cone just before the deviations to the left and right so the player can sprint without the ball before returning to pick it up.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Aerobic & Anaerobic Endurance Drills

ANAEROBIC ENDURANCE DRILLS Anaerobic endurance conditioning will help you to recover more quickly from successive bursts of speed and power. It will increase your tolerance to lactic acid and allow you maintain a high work rate for longer. This type of training could also be called speed endurance or power endurance. See section 1.3 of Total Soccer Conditioning for more details.

Guidelines These drills are very demanding in their nature. They are designed to produce high levels of lactic acid so the body becomes more tolerant to it and able to remove it more efficiently. Perform any skill and tactical or speed and agility work before these drills and don’t perform other demanding conditioning drills in the same session. A typical session might include 30 minutes work in total (including the rest periods in between sets). This may only consist of one or two drills at most. You should be thoroughly warmed up before moving on to these drills.

Drills With The Ball Anaerobic endurance conditioning is less effective when a ball is involved because it hinders maximal effort. The drills below incorporate a ball but there is minimal contact.

Drill #1 – Sprint & Back (Team & Pairs) Face a partner standing 20 meters/yards away. This player acts as a feeder. Sprint towards the feeder from the starting position; play a controlled pass, header or volley, turn and sprint back to the start. Repeat for 60 seconds and change positions. Complete 5 times each. This one set. Rest for 2 minutes and repeat for a total of 2-3 sets. Note: The feeder should move on the spot rather than standing still. They should also serve the ball to the working player when they are about 5 meters/yards away. The working player should touch the ground at the turn without the ball. Drill #2 – Dribbling To Cones (Team & Individual) Set up two cones 20 meters/yards apart. Dribble as quickly as possible between the two cones for 60 seconds. Rest for 60 seconds. Repeat a total of 5 times and rest for 2 minutes. This one set. Complete 3-4 sets. Stop the ball and turn rather than dribbling around the cones, which will slow the drill

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Soccer Exercise Library

Aerobic & Anaerobic Endurance Drills

down. There should be no more than 2 players pair set of cones as rest intervals will be too long.

Drill #3 – Sprint & Pass (Team) Form groups of four players. Two players stand 20 meters/yards apart facing each other each with a ball. These players act as feeders (blue). The other two players (yellow) stand between them, facing a ball. The working players sprint to a ball and lay off a pass, volley or header, then turn and sprint to the other feeder. The two working players should pass each other half way. Continue for 60 seconds. The two feeders become the working players. Complete 5 times each and rest for 2 minutes. This is one set. Complete 2-3 sets

20 meters/yards

Drills Without The Ball Drill #4 – Shuttle Runs (Team & Individual) Place 5 cones out 10 meters/yards apart. Starting on cone 1, run to cone 2 and back, then cone 3 and back, 4 and back, then 5 and back. The sprint should be flat out and with emphasis on sharp turns. Rest for 30 seconds and repeat. Rest another 30 seconds and repeat for a third time. This is one set. Rest for 2 minutes with active recovery such as walking. Complete a total of 3-5 sets.

Quick Tip! This is a very simple but very effective drill. After the very last shuttle of the very last set take your pulse for 3 minutes as you recover. Make a note after minute 1, minute 2 and minute 3 to see how quickly it comes down. If you perform this drill just once a week, you’ll notice after several weeks how much quicker your pulse rate starts to fall. Proof that you are becoming fitter and fitter!

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Soccer Exercise Library

Aerobic & Anaerobic Endurance Drills

Drill #5 – Penalty Spot Runs (Team & Individual) Using the dimensions of the penalty area (or similar set up with cones) take a starting position on the penalty spot. Sprint to one corner of the box and back, then to the next corner and back and so on for all four corners. Rest for 60 seconds and repeat for a total of 5 times. This is one set. Rest for 2 minutes with active recovery (such as ball jugging or walking) and complete a total of 2-3 sets.

Drill #6 – Hollow Sprints (Team & Individual) Sprint for 30 meters/yards, jog for 30 meters/yards, sprint for 30meters/yards, jog for 30meters/yards. Continue this pattern for 2 minutes. Then jog slowly for 2 minutes. This is one set. Complete a total of 4-6 sets. Drill # 7 – Progressive Shuttles (Team & Individual) Set out 5 cones 10 meters/yard apart. Starting on cone 1, jog to cone 4 then immediately sprint to cone 5. Turn and jog to cone 3 and then sprint to cone 1. Turn and jog to cone 2 and sprint to cone 5. Finally, turn immediately and sprint to cone 1. Rest for 60 seconds and repeat 3-5 times. This is one set. Complete 2-3 sets.

1

2 Jog

3

4

30 meters/yards

Sprint

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5

Soccer Exercise Library

Aerobic & Anaerobic Endurance Drills

Drill #8 – Accelerating Sprint (Team & Individual) Starting on one goal line, gradually accelerate to reach full speed at the halfway line and continue to sprint to the edge of the opposite penalty area. Gradually slow down to the goal line, turn and repeat for a total of 2 minutes. Walk or jog slowly for 2 minutes. This is one set. Complete a total of 4-6 sets.

Gradually increase speed Jog Sprint Drill #9 – Union Jacks (Team & Individual) Starting at one corner of the pitch, sprint to the touchline at the halfway point. Immediately turn and sprint along the halfway line to the center circle. Jog from the center circle to the far touchline. Turn and sprint diagonally to the opposite corner flag. Immediately turn and sprint to the centre of the goal. Jog back to the start and repeat (a total of 2 times). This is one set. Rest for 2 minutes with active recovery. Compete 4-6 sets.

Jog Sprint

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Soccer Exercise Library

Aerobic & Anaerobic Endurance Drills

Drill #10 – Penalty Area Sprint (Team & Individual) Starting on the goal line sprint to the edge of the 6-yard box and back. Turn and sprint to the penalty spot and back. Turn and sprint to the edge of the D and back. Continue for 60 seconds. Rest for sixty seconds. Repeat 3-5 times. Rest for 2 minutes. This is one set. Complete a total of 2-3 sets.

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SECTION 2

STRENGTH & POWER EXERCISES

Soccer Exercise Library

Strength & Power Exercises

Soccer players require strength in both the lower and upper body. Nearly every movement in the game from kicking, to tackling, to twisting and turning, sprinting and heading, requires a good foundation of strength and power. The strength training programs below have been split into four categories to coincide with section 2 of the Total Soccer Conditioning. These categories are foundational strength exercises, maximal strength exercises, strength endurance exercises and plyometric exercises. Note: Some exercises appear in more than one category. For example, push-ups are a suitable exercise for both foundational strength and strength endurance so they appear in both those categories.

Foundational Strength Programs Foundational strength conditioning prepares the joints, muscles, ligaments and tendons for more intense work in subsequent phases. It is designed to strengthen underused stabilizer muscles and to balance the right and left side of the body. A phase of foundational strength training should occur in the closed season before more intense routines are followed. See section 2.3 of Total Soccer Conditioning for more details.

Guidelines •

Foundational strength training uses lighter weights for a higher number of repetitions. Don’t try to lift too much too soon.



Perform a warm up consisting of light aerobic exercise and dynamic stretching before starting a strength training session.



Lift with a smooth and even rhythm. Pause for a second at the top of the lift and then lower the weight in a controlled manner.



Remember to breathe. Most people find it easiest to breathe out on the exertion or the actual lift and breathe in as the weight is lowered or returned to the starting position.



Increase the weight gradually over time as the exercise becomes easier and easier. Once you can comfortably perform the set number or repetitions increase the weight by the smallest amount i.e. 2.5kg or 5lbs.



For bodyweight exercises such as push ups and crunches increase the number of repetitions as the weight cannot be increased.



Remember that although a strength program should get progressively harder, it does so in a series of peaks and troughs. Don’t try to increase the weight every single session.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Strength & Power Exercises

Program #1 - Beginner The beginner program incorporates a greater number of exercises to strengthen all the major muscle groups, joints and ligaments. The program should last for at least 6-8 weeks and up to 12 weeks with 2-3 sessions per week. See section 2.4 of Total Soccer Fitness for repetitions, sets and rest intervals etc.

Lying Leg Presses (or Dumbbell Squats) 1) Sit in machine and place your legs on the foot plate about hip width apart. 2) Release the safety stops and bend your knees towards your chest. 3) When your knees are at right angles, extend your knees until your legs are almost fully extended.

Dumbbell (or Barbell) Bench Presses 1) Sit in an upright position on a flat bench with a dumbbell in each hand. (You may rest each dumbbell on the corresponding thigh.) 2) Start position: Lie onto your back and bring the dumbbells to your shoulders. Press the dumbbells up directly above the chest with palms facing forward. 3) Lower the dumbbells keeping your forearms perpendicular to the floor and your hands aligned at the nipple line. 4) Let your upper arms go slightly past parallel to the floor and press the dumbbells up to the start position.

Back Extensions on Ball 1. Lie face down on a stability ball positioned under your hips and your feet on the floor. 2. Hold a light weight within your crossed arms and held against your chest. 3. With your upper body parallel to your hips, hyperextend slowly and raise your shoulders up towards the ceiling. 4. You should only move a couple of inches and there is no need to forcefully hyperextend or extend past your bodies range of motion. You will only risk injury. 5. Return to the neutral or parallel position and repeat.

Dumbbell Lunges 1) Start position: Stand with feet hip width apart. Grasp dumbbells and hang arms down at sides. 2) Step forward 2-3 feet forming a 90° bend at the front hip and knee. DO NOT allow front knee to extend past the big toe. 3) Pushing off front foot, return to start position and

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Soccer Exercise Library

Strength & Power Exercises

repeat with the other leg. 4) Remember to keep head and back upright in a neutral position. Shoulders and hips should remain squared at all times. 5) Watch for proper knee alignment - do not let front knee extend past big toe or deviate laterally or medially. Back knee should not come in contact with floor.

Front Pull Downs 1) Adjust seat or knee pad height so that knees are secured while seated. 2) Grasp bar with an overhand grip wider than shoulder width apart and sit with knees secured in pads. 3) Start position: Fully extend arms with elbows facing out with back straight (you may lean back at hips (approximately 5°-10°). 4) Pull bar down to upper chest area and squeeze shoulder blades together at end of movement. 5) Return to start position. 6) Remember to keep torso stationary throughout movement.

Crunches 1) Start position: Lie back onto floor or bench with knees bent and hands behind head (not neck). Keep elbows back and out of sight. Head should be in a neutral position with a space between chin and chest. 2) Leading with the chin and chest towards the ceiling, contract the abdominal and raise shoulders off floor or bench. 3) Return to start position. Remember to keep head and back in a neutral position. Hyperextension or flexion of either may cause injury.

Seated Dumbbell Shoulder Presses 1) Sit in upright position or stand with feet shoulder width apart and knees slightly bent. 2) Start position: Position dumbbells to ear level with an overhand grip (palms facing forward). 3) Press hands up above head keeping wrists over the elbows and arms moving parallel to body at all times. 4) Return to start position. Remember to keep back and head straight in a neutral position.

Standing Machine Calf Raises 1) Step into provided shoulder pads. Adjust lever arm so that plates do not touch when lowering the weight. 2) Stand with feet hip width apart on the balls of feet with heels hanging over edge. Toes should be pointing forward. 3) Contract calves by pushing off balls of feet to raise heels up in air (standing on toes) 4) Lower heels and repeat. 5) Remember to keep knees slightly bent throughout

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Soccer Exercise Library

Strength & Power Exercises

movement to prevent any knee strain. Adjust weight load accordingly.

Barbell Upright Rows 1) Stand with feet shoulder width apart 2) Start position: Grasp barbell with an overhand grip (palms down). Arms should hang down to front with elbows slightly bent. 3) Raise barbell by pulling elbows towards the ceiling and pull barbell to chest level. 4) Return to start position. 5) Remember to keep back and head straight in a neutral position.

Side Bridges Start on your side and press up with your right arm. Form a bridge with your arm extended and hold for 10-30 seconds. Repeat other side.

Program #2 - Advanced The foundational phase is still important for experienced lifters. This program should last 4-6 weeks with 2-3 sessions per week. It contains fewer exercises and loads are slightly higher than the beginner program. See section 2.4 of Total Soccer Fitness for repetitions, sets and rest intervals etc. Barbell Squats (or Dumbbell Squats) 1) Grasp bar with overhand grip (palms forward) and slightly wider than hip width apart. Step under bar and position bar across posterior deltoids at middle of trapezius (as shown). DO NOT rest bar on neck. Lift elbows up, pull shoulder blades together, and lift chest up to create a “shelf” for the bar. 2) Start position: Using the legs, remove bar from rack. Stand with feet slighter wider than hip width apart. Back should be straight in a neutral position. 3) Lower body by flexing at the hips and knees. Upper body can flex forward at the hips slightly (~5°) durin g movement. Be sure to “sit back” so that knees stay over the feet. 4) Once thighs are almost parallel to floor, return to start position. 5) Remember to keep head and back straight in a neutral position - hyperextension or flexion may cause injury. Keep weight over the middle of foot and heel, not the toes. 6) DO NOT allow knees to go past the big toe or deviate medially or laterally throughout movement. Keep abdominals tight throughout exercise by drawing stomach in toward spine.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Strength & Power Exercises

Standing Military Presses 1) Stand with feet shoulder width apart and knees slightly bent. 2) Start position: Position barbell to ear level with an overhand grip (palms facing forward). 3) Press hands up above head keeping wrists over the elbows and arms moving parallel to body at all times. 4) Return to start position. Remember to keep back and head straight in a neutral position.

Crunches 1) Start position: Lie back onto floor or bench with knees bent and hands behind head. Keep elbows back and out of sight. Head should be in a neutral position with a space between chin and chest. 2) Leading with the chin and chest towards the ceiling, contract the abdominal and raise shoulders off floor or bench. 3) Return to start position. Remember to keep head and back in a neutral position.

Dumbbell Lunge Crossovers 1) Start position: Stand with feet hip width apart. Grasp dumbbells and hold out in front of body 2) Step forward 2-3 feet forming a 90° bend at the front hip and knee. DO NOT allow front knee to extend past the big toe - may cause injury. As you are lunging swing dumbbells across body towards the hip. 3) Pushing off front foot, return to start position with legs and dumbbells. Continue by alternating legs. 4) Remember to keep head and back upright in a neutral position. Shoulders and hips should remain squared at all times. 5) Watch for proper knee alignment - do not let front knee extend past big toe or deviate laterally or medially. Back knee should not come in contact with floor.

Barbell (or Dumbbell) Bench Presses 1) Lie on back with head underneath bar, eyes aligned with bar, and feet flat on floor. 2) Position hands on bar slightly wider than shoulder width. 3) Start position: Lift bar off rack with bar directly overhead. 4)Lower bar to chest at the nipple-line. Press bar up to starting position.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Strength & Power Exercises

Back Extensions 1) Position body face down on apparatus placing hips and ankles on respective pads. 2) Place hips (and not stomach) on pad. Place lower leg or achilles tendon area on pad. Cross arms and place on chest. 3) Start position: Back should be parallel to ground with knees slightly bent. 4) Lower body until legs and hip are approximately at 90°. 5) Return to start position. To increase resistance, place arms behind head -> arms extended overhead -> holding weight plate or weighted object across chest.

Front Pull Downs 1) Adjust seat or knee pad height so that knees are secured while seated. 2) Grasp bar with a overhand grip wider than shoulder width apart and sit with knees secured in pads. 3) Start position: Fully extend arms with elbows facing out with back straight (you may lean back at hips approximately 5°-10°). 4) Pull bar down to upper chest area and squeeze shoulder blades together at end of movement. 5) Return to start position. 6) Remember to keep torso stationary throughout movement.

Standing Machine Calf Raises 1) Step into provided shoulder pads. Adjust lever arm so that plates do not touch when lowering the weight. 2) Stand with feet hip width apart. Toes should be pointing forward. 3) Contract calves by pushing off balls of feet to raise heels up in air (standing on toes) 4) Lower heels and repeat. 5) Remember to keep knees slightly bent throughout movement to prevent any knee strain. Adjust weight load accordingly.

Program #3 - Bodyweight For players that don’t have access to weights equipment this program uses bodyweight only. It is excellent for developing functional and core strength proving that the lack of machines and free weights is not necessarily a problem. See section 2.4 of Total Soccer Fitness for repetitions, sets and rest intervals etc.

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Squat Jumps 1) Stand with feet shoulder-width apart, trunk flexed forward slightly with back straight in a neutral position. 2) Arms should be in the “ready” position with elbows flexed at approximately 90°. 3) Lower body where thighs are parallel to ground. 4) Explode vertically and drive arms up. 5) Land on both feet and repeat. Prior to take-off extend the ankles to their maximum range (full plantar flexion) to ensure proper mechanics.

Standard Pushups 1) Lie face down on the floor with hands palm down, fingers pointing straight ahead, and aligned at the nipple line. 2) Place hands slightly wider than shoulder width, and feet should be at hip width with toes on floor. 3) Start position: Extend the elbows and raise the body off the floor. 4) Lower your entire body (legs, hips, trunk, and head) 4-8 inches from the floor. 5) Return to the start position by extending at the elbows and pushing the body up. 6) Remember to keep the head and trunk stabilized in a neutral position by isometrically contracting the abdominal and back muscles. Never fully lock out the elbows at the start position and avoid hyperextension of the low back.

Lying Side Crunches 1) Lie with back on floor or bench with knees bent. 2) Start position: Let your knees fall to the right so that your hips are somewhat rotated. 3) Leading with the chin and left shoulder, contract abdominal muscles and raise left shoulder off floor or bench towards left knee. 4) Return to start position. Repeat with other side. 5) Remember to keep head and neck in neutral position throughout movement. Do not twist excessively - elbow does not need to touch knee.

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Burpees

1) From a standing position, jump as high as possible and land down on your feet with your hands on the ground. 2) Kick your feet back. For a moment you will be in a push up position and jump back up again as fast as possible. 3) Repeat for the required repetitions

Pullups 1) Position hands wider than shoulder width apart with overhand grip (palms facing forward). 2) Start position: Hang with arms fully extended and elbows facing away from body. Feet may be crossed with knees bent. 3) Pull body up until bar is below chin level. 4) Return to start position. 5) Remember to keep the movement controlled with the body stable to minimize momentum

Alternating Supermans 1) Lie face down on floor with arms extended overhead. You may place a rolled towel under forehead to clear face from floor. 2) Raise right arm and left leg 4-8 inches off floor. 3) Lower and raise alternate opposite arm and leg. Remember to keep head and back in a neutral position. Shoulders and hips should remain squared throughout movement.

One Leg Squats 1) Stand with feet hip width apart with knees slightly bent and toes pointing forward. 2) Start position: Lift one foot off ground and extend leg forward. Extend arms forward at hip level. If strong enough hold a dumbbell at chest level. 3) Lower body by flexing at the hips and knees. Upper body can flex forward at the hips slightly (~5°) during movement. Be sure to “sit back” so that knees stay over the feet.

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4) Once thigh is slightly above parallel return to start position.

Bench Dips 1) Sit upright on bench and place hands hip width apart with fingers pointing forward. Place feet flat on opposite bench with legs straight. 2) Start position: Slide glutes off bench with elbows slightly bent. 3) Lower body by bending at elbows until elbows are at 90 degree angle. 4) Return to start position.

Program #4 – Dumbbells & Barbells Here is another sample foundational strength program for soccer that uses free weights exclusively. Free weights offer several advantages over resistance machines, particularly from an athlete’s perspective. Stabilizing muscle groups are conditioned alongside major muscle groups, which results in greater functional strength and a more balanced physique. See section 2.4 of Total Soccer Fitness for repetitions, sets and rest intervals etc.

Dumbbell (or Barbell) Bench Presses 1) Sit in an upright position on a flat bench with a dumbbell in each hand. (You may rest each dumbbell on the corresponding thigh.) 2) Start position: Lie onto your back and bring the dumbbells to your shoulders. Press the dumbbells up directly above the chest with palms facing forward. 3) Lower the dumbbells keeping your forearms perpendicular to the floor and your hands aligned at the nipple line. 4) Let your upper arms go slightly past parallel to the floor and press the dumbbells up to the

Barbell Squats (or Dumbbell Squats) 1) Grasp bar with overhand grip (palms forward) and slightly wider than hip width apart. Step under bar and position bar across posterior deltoids at middle of trapezius (as shown). DO NOT rest bar on neck. Lift elbows up, pull shoulder blades together, and lift chest up to create a “shelf” for the bar. 2) Start position: Using the legs, remove bar from rack. Stand with feet slighter wider than hip width apart. Back should be straight in a neutral position. 3) Lower body by flexing at the hips and knees. Upper body can flex forward at the hips slightly (~5°) during movement. Be sure to “sit back” so that knees stay over the feet.

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4) Once thighs are parallel to floor, return to start position. 5) Remember to keep head and back straight in a neutral position - hyperextension or flexion may cause injury. Keep weight over the middle of foot and heel, not the toes. 6) DO NOT allow knees to go past the big toe or deviate medially or laterally throughout movement. Keep abdominals tight throughout exercise by drawing stomach in toward spine.

Dumbbell Pullovers 1) Lie on your back on a flat bench forming a table top with your body. Place dumbbell on chest with handle perpendicular to chest. 2) Start position: Extend elbows and raise dumbbell even with the eye-line. 3) With elbows slightly bent, lower dumbbell back behind head to slightly below head level. Return to start position. 4) Remember to keep both feet flat on the floor at all times and keep the lower back in a neutral position. Hyperextension or arching of the back may cause injury. Never lock out elbows. If maintaining stability is difficult, lower hips below parallel until stability is established.

Full Situps with Twist 1) Start position: Lie back onto floor or bench with knees bent and hands behind head. Keep elbows back and out of sight. Head should be in a neutral position with a space between chin and chest. 2) Leading with the chin and chest towards the ceiling, contract the abdominal and raise shoulders off floor or bench. As you come up twist one shoulder towards the opposite knee. 3) Return to start position and repeat with the other shoulder. 4) Remember to keep head and back in a neutral position. Hyperextension or flexion of either may cause injury.

Dumbbell (or Barbell) Lunges 1) Start position: Stand with feet hip width apart. Grasp dumbbells and hang arms down at sides. 2) Step forward 2-3 feet forming a 90° bend at the front hip and knee. DO NOT allow front knee to extend past the big toe. 3) Pushing off front foot, return to start position and repeat with the other leg. 4) Remember to keep head and back upright in a neutral position. Shoulders and hips should remain squared at all times. 5) Watch for proper knee alignment - do not let front knee extend past big toe or deviate laterally or medially. Back knee should not come in contact with floor.

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Standing Military Presses or Seated Dumbbell Shoulder Presses 1) Stand with feet shoulder width apart and knees slightly bent. 2) Start position: Position barbell to ear level with an overhand grip (palms facing forward). 3) Press hands up above head keeping wrists over the elbows and arms moving parallel to body at all times. 4) Return to start position. Remember to keep back and head straight in a neutral position.

Alternating Supermans 1) Lie face down on floor with arms extended overhead. You may place a rolled towel under forehead to clear face from floor. 2) Raise right arm and left leg 4-8 inches off floor. 3) Lower and raise alternate opposite arm and leg. Remember to keep head and back in a neutral position. Shoulders and hips should remain squared throughout movement.

Single Leg Dumbbell Toe Raises 1) Start position: Stand with feet hip width apart or stand on the edge of a step on the ball of one foot with your heel hanging over edge. Toes should be pointing forward. Hold a dumbbell in the hand on the same side. 2) Contract calf by pushing off ball of foot to raise heel up in air (standing on toes)

Standing Dumbbell (or Barbell) Upright Rows 1) Stand with feet shoulder width apart 2) Start position: Grasp DB’s with an overhand grip (palms down). Arms should hang down to front with elbows slightly bent. 3) Raise DB’s by pulling elbows towards the ceiling and pull barbell to chest level. 4) Return to start position. 5) Remember to keep back and head straight in a neutral position - hyperextension or flexion may cause injury. Keep shoulders stabilized by squeezing shoulder blades together throughout movement.

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Program #5 – Resistance Machines Some players and coaches feel more comfortable using resistance machines as opposed to free weights. Although they are less functional they are safer if a player (particularly a less experienced lifter) is training alone. With proper form and a training partner, free weights exercises are equally as safe. See section 2.4 of Total Soccer Fitness for repetitions, sets and rest intervals etc.

Machine Chest Presses 1) Sit in upright position with back flat against bench and feet flat on floor. 2) Bottom grip position of lever arm should be aligned at the nipple-line (adjust accordingly either seat back and height adjustment, and/or lever arm). Elbows should be flexed at 90° 3) Start position: press weight forward (use footassist if available). 4) Lower weight until upper arm is perpendicular to slightly past perpendicular to body. Return to start position by pressing weight forward.

Lying Leg Presses 1) Starting Position: Place your shoulders under the pads and your feet should be about shoulder width apart on the platform. 2) Release the safety bars and bend your knees into a squatted position. 3) Once your thighs break parallel then extend your legs to a soft bend in your knees. 4) Repeat for the prescribed number of reps. Keep your abs tight throughout the movement to minimize low back injury or strain.

Crunches 1) Start position: Lie back onto floor or bench with knees bent and hands behind head. Keep elbows back and out of sight. Head should be in a neutral position with a space between chin and chest. 2) Leading with the chin and chest towards the ceiling, contract the abdominal and raise shoulders off floor or bench. 3) Return to start position. Remember to keep head and back in a neutral position. Hyperextension or flexion of either may cause injury.

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Front Pull Downs 1) Adjust seat or knee pad height so that knees are secured while seated. 2) Grasp bar with a overhand grip wider than shoulder width apart and sit with knees secured in pads. 3) Start position: Fully extend arms with elbows facing out with back straight (you may lean back at hips approximately 5°-10°). 4) Pull bar down to upper chest area and squeeze shoulder blades together at end of movement. 5) Return to start position. 6) Remember to keep torso stationary throughout movement.

Lying Hamstring Curls 1) Lie face down on bench with pad adjusted to fit behind ankles. If machine does not angle upper torso downward, it is recommended that a pillow be placed underneath stomach. 2) Start position: Position knees below bottom edge of bench or pad. Legs should be straight with knees aligned to the lever arm axis of motion and hands grasping handles or side of bench (if applicable). 3) Raise lever arm by flexing at the knees past 90°. 4) Return to start position. Remember to keep hips in contact with bench at all times. Do not hyperextend the low back during movement. *Weights are lighter as hamstrings are a weaker and more injury prone muscle group

Seated Shoulder Presses 1) Sit in upright position or stand with feet shoulder width apart and knees slightly bent. 2) Start position: Position barbell to ear level with an overhand grip (palms facing forward). 3) Press hands up above head keeping wrists over the elbows and arms moving parallel to body at all times. 4) Return to start position. 5) Remember to keep back and head straight in a neutral position hyperextension or excessive flexion may cause injury.

Seated Back Extension 1) Starting Position: Sit upright in the machine with your upper back against the roller. 2) Keeping your back flat hyperextend so that you push against the roller pad. 3) Extend back to almost a neutral position and then return to the starting position.

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Machine Seated Calf Raise 1) Keeping back straight, place highs under pads approximately hip width apart 2) Place balls of feet on the foot plate so heels hang over edge 3) Raise toes to lift weight as high as possible and hold for a count of 3 4) Slowly lower pads back to starting position and repeat

Preacher Curls 1) Adjust seat or arm support height so that, while seated, top of arm support pad is at chest level. 2) Position arms shoulder width apart with elbows and upper arm supported on pad. 3) Start position: Grasp bar with underhand grip (palms facing up) with elbows slightly bent. Choose a narrow or wide grip if applicable. 4) Flex at elbows and curl handle up until forearms are perpendicular to floor. Contract biceps at top of movement. 5) Return to start position. 6) Remember to keep shoulders stabilized - do not shrug shoulders forward on down (eccentric) phase of movement. Do not fully extend elbows at bottom of movement.

Maximal Strength Programs Maximal strength training is an important part of the total strength conditioning plan. However, it is a means to an end. The objective is to build a high level of basic strength that can be converted later into soccer-specific strength endurance and power. Good basic strength will also help you to hold off opponents and resist challenges. See section 2.4 of Total Soccer Conditioning for more details.

Guidelines •

Maximal strength uses heavier loads and fewer repetitions. It’s important to maintain proper technique and to have a spotter or training partner spot lifts.



Perform a warm up consisting of light aerobic exercise and dynamic stretching before starting a strength training session.



Lift with a smooth and even rhythm. Pause for a second at the top of the lift and then lower the weight in a controlled manner.

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Remember to breathe. Most people find it easiest to breathe out on the exertion or the actual lift and breathe in as the weight is lowered or returned to the starting position.



Once you can perform the set number or repetitions for all sets increase the weight by the smallest amount i.e. 2.5kg or 5lbs.



Remember that although a strength program should get progressively harder, it does so in a series of peaks and troughs. Don’t try to increase the weight every single session.

Program #1 - Beginner The beginner program incorporates less complex lifts and is performed with slightly lighter loads. It should last for 6-8 weeks with 2-3 sessions performed each week. See section 2.5 of Total Soccer Fitness for repetitions, sets and rest intervals etc. 45% Leg Presses 1) Sit in machine and place your legs on the foot plate about hip width apart. 2) Release the safety stops and bend your knees towards your chest. 3) When your knees are fully bent extend your knees until your legs are fully extended

Barbell Bench Presses 1) Lie on back with head underneath bar, eyes aligned with bar, and feet flat on floor. 2) Position hands on bar slightly wider than shoulder width. 3) Start position: Lift bar off rack with bar directly overhead. 4)Lower bar to chest at the nipple-line. Press bar up to starting position.

Lying Hamstring Curls 1) Lie face down on bench with pad adjusted to fit behind ankles. If machine does not angle upper torso downward, it is recommended that a pillow be placed underneath stomach. 2) Start position: Position knees below bottom edge of bench or pad. Legs should be straight with knees aligned to the lever arm axis of motion and hands grasping handles or side of bench (if applicable). 3) Raise lever arm by flexing at the knees past 90°.

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4) Return to start position. Remember to keep hips in contact with bench at all times. Do not hyperextend the low back during movement. *Weights are lighter as hamstrings are a weaker and more injury prone muscle group

Front Pull Downs 1) Adjust seat or knee pad height so that knees are secured while seated. 2) Grasp bar with a overhand grip wider than shoulder width apart and sit with knees secured in pads. 3) Start position: Fully extend arms with elbows facing out with back straight (you may lean back at hips approximately 5°-10°). 4) Pull bar down to upper chest area and squeeze shoulder blades together at end of movement. 5) Return to start position. 6) Remember to keep torso stationary throughout movement.

Seated Knee Extensions 1) Sit in machine and place your shins behind the pad. 2) Extend your legs by pushing into the pad until the legs are parallel to the ground. 3) Return to the starting position.

Seated Dumbbell Shoulder Presses 1) Sit in upright position or stand with feet shoulder width apart and knees slightly bent. 2) Start position: Position dumbbells to ear level with an overhand grip (palms facing forward). 3) Press hands up above head keeping wrists over the elbows and arms moving parallel to body at all times. 4) Return to start position. Remember to keep back and head straight in a neutral position.

Standing Machine Calf Raises 1) Step into provided shoulder pads. Adjust lever arm so that plates do not touch when lowering the weight. 2) Stand with feet hip width apart. Toes should be pointing forward. 3) Contract calves by pushing off balls of feet to raise heels up in air (standing on toes) 4) Lower heels and repeat. 5) Remember to keep knees slightly bent throughout movement to prevent any knee strain. Adjust weight load accordingly.

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Oblique Crunches 1) Start by placing your left foot over your right knee and place your hands behind your head (but not your neck). 2) Lift your shoulders up off the ground and twist so that your right elbows tries to touch your left knee. 3) Return to the starting position and repeat according to the required repetitions. 4) Repeat with the other side.

Program #2 - Advanced The advanced program consists of fewer exercises and heavier loads. This program is also split over two separate sessions performed alternatively 2 or 3 days a week. See section 2.5 of Total Soccer Fitness for repetitions, sets and rest intervals etc.

Day 1 Hang Cleans to Push Presses

1) Start with the torso straight but bent forward at the hips slightly. 2) Shrug your shoulders and at maximum elevation of the shoulders start pulling with the arms as in barbell shrugs. 3) Keep the elbows high during the pull until the highest point and then rotate elbows around and underneath the bar. 4) Rack the bar across the front of the shoulders and slightly flex the hips and knees to absorb the weight. 5) This should be a fluid motion where all the steps flow together. 6) Now go into a semi squat and explode upwards and press the barbell overhead using the momentum from the squat. 7) Return to the starting position.

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Front Pull Downs 1) Adjust seat or knee pad height so that knees are secured while seated. 2) Grasp bar with a overhand grip wider than shoulder width apart and sit with knees secured in pads. 3) Start position: Fully extend arms with elbows facing out with back straight (you may lean back at hips approximately 5°-10°). 4) Pull bar down to upper chest area and squeeze shoulder blades together at end of movement. 5) Return to start position. 6) Remember to keep torso stationary throughout movement.

Barbell Bench Presses 1) Lie on back with head underneath bar, eyes aligned with bar, and feet flat on floor. 2) Position hands on bar slightly wider than shoulder width. 3) Start position: Lift bar off rack with bar directly overhead. 4)Lower bar to chest at the nipple-line. Press bar up to starting position.

Weighted Crunches 1) Start position: Lie back onto floor or bench with knees bent and hands on your chest. Hold a light weight plate on your chest or behind your head. Head should be in a neutral position with a space between chin and chest. 2) Leading with the chin and chest towards the ceiling, contract the abdominal and raise shoulders off floor or bench. 3) Return to start position. 4) Remember to keep head and back in a neutral position.

Day 2 Barbell Squats 1) Grasp bar with overhand grip (palms forward) and slightly wider than hip width apart. Step under bar and position bar across posterior deltoids at middle of trapezius (as shown). DO NOT rest bar on neck. Lift elbows up, pull shoulder blades together, and lift chest up to create a “shelf” for the bar. 2) Start position: Using the legs, remove bar from rack. Stand with feet slighter wider than hip width apart. Back should be straight in a neutral position. 3) Lower body by flexing at the hips and knees. Upper body can flex forward at the hips slightly (~5°) durin g movement. Be sure to “sit back” so that knees stay over the feet. 4) Once thighs are almost parallel to floor, return to start position. 5) Remember to keep head and back straight in a neutral position - hyperextension or flexion may cause injury. Keep weight over the middle of foot and heel, not the toes. 6) DO NOT allow knees to go past the big toe or deviate medially or laterally throughout movement. Keep abdominals tight throughout exercise by drawing stomach in toward spine.

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Barbell Deadlifts 1) Start Position: Assume a shoulder width stance, knees inside arms. Feet flat on floor. 2) Position shoulders slightly over bar and grab bar. Begin pull by extending the knees. 3) Keep angle of your back constant and lift bar straight up. Keep bar close to the body and keep shoulders directly over the bar. 4) Return to starting position. *Weights are lighter as lower back can be more prone to injury.

Lying Hamstring Curls 1) Lie face down on bench with pad adjusted to fit behind ankles. If machine does not angle upper torso downward, it is recommended that a pillow be placed underneath stomach. 2) Start position: Position knees below bottom edge of bench or pad. Legs should be straight with knees aligned to the lever arm axis of motion and hands grasping handles or side of bench (if applicable). 3) Raise lever arm by flexing at the knees past 90°. 4) Return to start position. Remember to keep hips in contact with bench at all times. Do not hyperextend the low back during movement. *Weights are lighter as hamstrings are a weaker and more injury prone muscle group

Standing Machine Calf Raises 1) Step into provided shoulder pads. Adjust lever arm so that plates do not touch when lowering the weight. 2) Stand with feet hip width apart or stand on the edge of a step on the balls of feet with heels hanging over edge. Toes should be pointing forward. 3) Contract calves by pushing off balls of feet to raise heels up in air (standing on toes) 4) Lower heels and repeat. 5) Remember to keep knees slightly bent throughout movement to prevent any knee strain. Adjust weight load accordingly.

Strength Endurance Programs The key objective of a strength endurance phase is to help players tolerate fatigue and a high build up of lactic acid. As the in-season draws closer, strength conditioning sessions should move away from maximal strength and focus on power and strength endurance. See section 2.5 of Total Soccer Conditioning for more details.

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Guidelines •

Training for strength endurance incorporates lighter weights and more repetitions. One of the best formats is circuit training where several exercise stations are performed consecutively.



Complete a warm up consisting of light aerobic exercise and dynamic stretching before starting a strength training session.



Lift with a smooth and even rhythm. Pause for a second at the top of the lift and then lower the weight in a controlled manner.



Remember to breathe. Most people find it easiest to breathe out on the exertion or the actual lift and breathe in as the weight is lowered or returned to the starting position.



Once you can perform exercises for the prescribed amount of time, either increase the weight slightly or decrease the rest interval between stations.

Program #1 - Beginner This beginner circuit has slightly longer rest intervals, uses a higher load and includes less complex stations. A strength endurance phase should last 4-6 weeks during the late pre-season. See section 2.6 of Total Soccer Fitness for repetitions, sets and rest intervals etc.

Squat Jumps 1) Stand with feet shoulder-width apart, trunk flexed forward slightly with back straight in a neutral position. 2) Arms should be in the “ready” position with elbows flexed at approximately 90°. 3) Lower body where thighs are parallel to ground. 4) Explode vertically and drive arms up. 5) Land on both feet and repeat. Prior to takeoff extend the ankles to their maximum range (full plantar flexion) to ensure proper mechanics.

Push Ups 1) Lie face down on the floor with hands palm down, fingers pointing straight ahead, and aligned at the nipple line. 2) Place hands slightly wider than shoulder width, and feet should be at hip width with toes on floor. 3) Start position: Extend the elbows and raise the body off the floor. 4) Lower your entire body (legs, hips, trunk, and head) 4-8 inches from the floor. 5) Return to the start position by extending at the elbows and pushing the body up. 6) Remember to keep the head and trunk stabilized in a neutral position by isometrically contracting the abdominal and back muscles. Never fully lock out the elbows at the start position and avoid hyperextension of the low back.

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Mountain Climbers 1) Start by getting on your hands and feet in a prone position. 2) Keeping your body parallel to ground drive your knees up towards your chest alternating back and forth. 3) Repeat this movement for the required number of seconds.

Sit Ups with Twist 1) Start position: Lie back onto floor or bench with knees bent and hands behind head. Keep elbows back and out of sight. Head should be in a neutral position with a space between chin and chest. 2) Leading with the chin and chest towards the ceiling, contract the abdominal and raise shoulders off floor or bench. As you come up twist one shoulder towards the opposite knee. 3) Return to start position and repeat with the other shoulder. 4) Remember to keep head and back in a neutral position.

Box Step with Knee Drive 1) Stand behind box (about 12-15” high) and place one foot on top of box, heel close to the closest edge. Hold a dumbbell in each hand. 2) Push off the box and explode vertically and drive your other knee up towards your chest. Complete the prescribed number of reps. 3) Repeat with other leg.

Dips 1) Step up on foot platform (if available) and position hands on dip bars. 2) Start position: Remove feet from platforms and suspend the body with slightly bent elbows. Lean forward slightly so that your elbows are slightly past the plane of your back and knees slightly bent. 3) Lower your body until your upper arms are parallel to the floor. 4) Return to starting position by extending the elbows to a slightly bent position. 5) Remember to keep the trunk bent forward, head neutral, and chest up.

Lateral Bounds 1) Stand side on to a box approximately 8-12 inches high 2) Standing on one leg (furthest from box) dip down and jump up to box landing with opposite foot. 3) Land softly on one leg and repeat keeping a fluid motion throughout. 4) Repeat for the other side.

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Alternating Superman 1) Lie face down on floor with arms extended overhead. You may place a rolled towel under forehead to clear face from floor. 2) Raise right arm and left leg 4-8 inches off floor. 3) Lower and raise alternate opposite arm and leg. Remember to keep head and back in a neutral position. Shoulders and hips should remain squared throughout movement.

Program #2 - Advanced The advanced circuit includes more complex exercise stations and has shorter rest intervals. See section 2.6 of Total Soccer Fitness for repetitions, sets and rest intervals etc.

Alternate Squats & Presses 1) Start by holding a dumbbell in each hand at shoulder level. 2) Squat down to about parallel and explode up to a standing position. 3) Once you have squatted half way up start pressing the dumbbells over your head. 4) Use the momentum from your squat to propel the dumbbells above your head. Remember to stay in control of the dumbbells at all times.

Push Ups 1) Lie face down on the floor with hands palm down, fingers pointing straight ahead, and aligned at the nipple line. 2) Place hands slightly wider than shoulder width, and feet should be at hip width with toes on floor. 3) Start position: Extend the elbows and raise the body off the floor. 4) Lower your entire body (legs, hips, trunk, and head) 4-8 inches from the floor. 5) Return to the start position by extending at the elbows and pushing the body up. 6) Remember to keep the head and trunk stabilized in a neutral position by isometrically contracting the abdominal and back muscles. Never fully lock out the elbows at the start position and avoid hyperextension of the low back.

Dumbbell Double Lunges 1) Start by placing your feet shoulder width apart and holding dumbbells at your side. 2) Step forward into a lunge keeping your upper body upright. 3) Return to the starting position and proceed into a reverse lunge with the same leg lunging backwards.

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4) Return to the starting position and repeat with the other leg. 5) Continue for the required number of repetitions.

Double Crunches 1) Lie back onto floor or bench with knees bent and hands behind head. Keep elbows back and out of sight. Head should be in a neutral position with a space between chin and chest. 2) Start position: Hands behind head and knees bent at 90 degrees. 3) Leading with the chin and chest towards the ceiling, contract the abdominals and raise shoulders off floor or bench. During the crunch, also bring knees towards chest. 4) Return to start position. Remember to keep head and back in a neutral position.

Box Step with Knee Drive 1) Stand behind box and place one foot on top of box, heel close to the closest edge. Hold a dumbbell in each hand. 2) Push off the box and explode vertically and drive your other knee up towards your chest. Complete the prescribed number of reps. 3) Repeat with other leg and continue according to prescribed number of repetitions

Dips 1) Step up on foot platform (if available) and position hands on dip bars. 2) Start position: Remove feet from platforms and suspend the body with slightly bent elbows. Lean forward slightly so that your elbows are slightly past the plane of your back and knees slightly bent. 3) Lower your body until your upper arms are parallel to the floor. 4) Return to starting position by extending the elbows to a slightly bent position. 5) Remember to keep the trunk bent forward, head neutral, and chest up.

Alternating Split Squats 1) Stand with feet hip width apart. Take left leg and step back approximately 2 feet standing on the ball of back foot. 2) Feet should be positioned at a staggered stance with head and back erect and straight in a neutral position. Place hands on waist. 3) Lower body by bending at right hip and knee until thigh is parallel to floor then immediately explode vertically. 4) Switch feet in the air so that the back foot lands forward and vice versa. 5) Prior to takeoff extend the ankles to their maximum range (full plantar flexion) ensure proper mechanics.

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Supermans 1) Start position: Lie face down on floor with hands down at sides. You may place a rolled towel under forehead to clear face from floor. 2) Raise chest and head off floor keeping feet in contact with floor. 3) Return to start position. 4) To increase resistance, extend arms and place hands overhead. 5) Do not raise head past 8-12 inches - excessive hyperextension may cause injury. To vary exercise raise feet while raising trunk.

Program #3 - Bodyweight This soccer-specific circuit uses only bodyweight exercises and requires little or no equipment. See section 2.6 of Total Soccer Fitness for repetitions, sets and rest intervals etc. Squat Jump 1) Stand with feet shoulder-width apart, trunk flexed forward slightly with back straight in a neutral position. 2) Arms should be in the “ready” position with elbows flexed at approximately 90°. 3) Lower body where thighs are parallel to ground. 4) Explode vertically and drive arms up. 5) Land on both feet and repeat. Prior to takeoff extend the ankles to their maximum range (full plantar flexion) to ensure proper mechanics.

Standard Pushup 1) Lie face down on the floor with hands palm down, fingers pointing straight ahead, and aligned at the nipple line. 2) Place hands slightly wider than shoulder width, and feet should be at hip width with toes on floor. 3) Start position: Extend the elbows and raise the body off the floor. 4) Lower your entire body (legs, hips, trunk, and head) 4-8 inches from the floor. 5) Return to the start position by extending at the elbows and pushing the body up. 6) Remember to keep the head and trunk stabilized in a neutral position by isometrically contracting the abdominal and back muscles. Never fully lock out the elbows at the start position and avoid hyperextension of the low back.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Strength & Power Exercises

Bodyweight Squats 1) Start by placing feet shoulder width apart and holding your arms out in front of you. 2) Proceed to squat down like you are going to sit in a chair. Your upper body will lean forward slightly and your hips will shift backwards while going down. 3) Remember to keep your knees from going out in front of your toes while squatting. 4) Repeat according to your required repetitions. If you want to make the exercise more challenging hold your arms at your sides or behind your head.

Crunches 1) Start position: Lie back onto floor or bench with knees bent and hands behind head. Keep elbows back and out of sight. Head should be in a neutral position with a space between chin and chest. 2) Leading with the chin and chest towards the ceiling, contract the abdominal and raise shoulders off floor or bench. 3) Return to start position.

Burpees

1) From a standing position, jump as high as possible and land down on your feet with your hands on the ground. 2) Kick your feet back. For a moment you will be in a push up position and jump back up again as fast as possible. 3) Repeat for the required repetitions

Dips 1) Step up on foot platform (if available) and position hands on dip bars. 2) Start position: Remove feet from platforms and suspend the body with slightly bent elbows. Lean forward slightly so that your elbows are slightly past the plane of your back and knees slightly bent. 3) Lower your body until your upper arms are parallel to the floor. 4) Return to starting position by extending the elbows to a slightly bent position. 5) Remember to keep the trunk bent forward, head neutral, and chest up.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Strength & Power Exercises

Bodyweight Reverse Lunge 1) Start by standing with your feet shoulder width apart. 2) Step back with one foot and bend your knees into a lunged position. Your back knee should come close to touching the ground and your front leg should be bent to about 90 degrees at the knee. 3) Maintain your upright posture throughout the movement. 4) Return to the starting position and repeat. Once repetitions are completed then repeat with the other leg.

Alternating Superman 1) Lie face down on floor with arms extended overhead. You may place a rolled towel under forehead to clear face from floor. 2) Raise right arm and left leg 4-8 inches off floor. 3) Lower and raise alternate opposite arm and leg. Remember to keep head and back in a neutral position. Shoulders and hips should remain squared throughout movement.

Explosive Power Programs The aim of plyometric exercises is to improve your rate of force production. This will help you to run faster, jump higher and kick harder (the ball that is!). As with strength endurance conditioning, plyometrics should be incorporated into the program mid to late pre-season. See section 2.6 of Total Soccer Conditioning for details.

Guidelines •

A solid strength base is required before starting a plyometrics program. As a rule of thumb you should be able to squat twice your bodyweight or leg press 2.5 times your bodyweight.



It is not recommended that anyone under the age of 16 use plyometrics This applies particularly to the more intense plyometric exercises (discussed below).



Warming up is crucial. Spend 10mins jogging or skipping followed by 510mins of stretching the muscles involved. Don't forget to stretch your lower back.



Do NOT be tempted to add extra sets and repetitions even if you feel fresh at the end of a session.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Strength & Power Exercises



Perform plyometric exercises on a soft surface such as grass or a synthetic running track.



Rest completely between sets, 3-5 minutes at least. Quality is allimportant.



Perform each action, each repetition with maximum speed, effort and technique.



A plyometric session should not contain more than 120 ground contacts for any muscle group.



Do NOT use ankle or wrist weights for extra resistance. This will hinder the speed of the movement and increase the risk of stress injuries.



Try to keep you torso erect during the movements -- it prevents undue strain on the lower back.



If you feel any pain or discomfort, stop immediately.

Program #1 - Beginner Both the beginner and advanced programs are split over two days. This is simply to incorporate a wider range of plyometric exercises and to minimize the amount of similar repetitive strains on placed on the body. See section 2.7 of Total Soccer Fitness for repetitions, sets and rest intervals etc.

Day 1 Squat Jumps 1) Stand with feet shoulder-width apart, trunk flexed forward slightly with back straight in a neutral position. 2) Arms should be in the “ready” position with elbows flexed at approximately 90°. 3) Lower body where thighs are parallel to ground. 4) Explode vertically and drive arms up. 5) Land on both feet and repeat. Prior to takeoff extend the ankles to their maximum range (full plantar flexion) to ensure proper mechanics.

Step Jumps 1) Stand beside object to be cleared. 2) Bring knees up and jump vertically but also laterally off ground and over the barrier. 3) Land on both feet and jump the other direction over barrier.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Strength & Power Exercises

Box Drill with Rings

1) Stand with feet slightly wider than hip-width apart with your body facing the first ring. 2) Hop forward using both feet and land in first ring. 3) Now hop to the left and land in the ring to the side. Now jump backwards to land in ring behind you. Finish by jumping to your right to land in final ring. 4) Repeat according to the prescribed number of repetitions. Note: There is only one set of 4 rings (not 4 sets as in the diagram above). The diagram above is just to illustrate the various stages.

Day 2 Hurdle Jumps

1) Stand 1-2 feet away from hurdle. Feet should be slightly wider than hip-width apart in a semi-squat position. 2) Driving the arms up and jump over hurdle. 3) Upon landing, quickly jump over next hurdle keeping ground contact time to a minimum.

Lateral High Hops

1) Stand to left side of box (12-18” high) and place right foot on top of box. 2) Push off the box using the right leg only and explode vertically as high as possible. Drive the arms forward and up for maximum height. 3) Land with opposite foot onto box. Repeat with the other foot. 4) Repeat according to prescribed number of repetitions.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Strength & Power Exercises

Bounding

1) Jog into the start of the drill for forward momentum. 2) After a few feet, forcefully push off with the left foot and bring the leg forward. At same time drive your right arm forward. 3) Repeat with other leg and arm 4) This exercise is an exaggerated running motion focusing on foot push-off and air time.

Program #2 - Advanced The drills in the advanced routine are slightly higher impact and more intense. They will help to generate greater explosive power but they are only suitable for players who have been weight training for some time. See section 2.7 of Total Soccer Conditioning for details.

Day 1 Depth Jumps

1) Stand on box (12-18” high) with toes close to edge and facing the hoop 2) Step off (don’t jump off) box and land on both feet. Immediately jump up and reach with both hands towards the sky. 3) Ground contact time should be minimal (don’t sink into the ground) and landings should be soft. Note: There is only one box (not 3 boxes as in the diagram above). The diagram above is just to illustrate the various stages.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Strength & Power Exercises

One Leg Lateral Box Hops 1) Stand on left foot with the right side of body next to the box. 2) Jump to the right using just one foot. 3) Land on top of the box and then jump back down to the starting position. 4) Repeat according to the prescribed number of repetitions and change legs.

Two Foot Zig-Zag Hops

1) Stand to the left of an agility ladder (or 2 pieces of string about 12 inches wide). 2) Forcefully push off both feet and land the on the other side of the ladder. 3) Repeat and land feet back on the other side, continue repeating and so on down the ladder. 4) Ground contact time should be minimal. Each ground contact counts as a repetition.

Day 2 Hurdle Jumps

1) Stand 1-2 feet away from hurdle. Feet should be slightly wider than hip-width apart in a semi-squat position. 2) Driving the arms up and jump over hurdle. 3) Upon landing, quickly jump over next hurdle.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Strength & Power Exercises

Lateral Barrier Jumps 1) Stand with feet slightly wider than hip-width apart with right side of body facing the barrier. 2) Hop to the right using both feet over the barrier (12-18 inches high). 3) jump back to the start point. 4) Repeat according to the prescribed number of repetitions. Note: There is only one barrier (not 3 barriers as in the diagram right). The diagram is just to illustrate the various stages.

Bounding with Rings

1) Jog into the start of the drill for forward momentum. 2) After a few feet, forcefully push off with the left foot and bring the right leg forward. At same time swing left arm forward and land into the first ring, which is 3-4 feet out and to the left with the right foot. 3) Continue and repeat with other leg and arm into the second ring, which is now 3-4 feet up and to the right. 4) This exercise is an exaggerated running motion focusing on foot push-off and airtime.

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SECTION 3

SPEED & AGILITY DRILLS

Soccer Exercise Library

Speed & Agility Drills

Speed and agility training will improve your speed off the mark, acceleration over 10-15 yards, your speed endurance, quickness of feet as well as your ability to execute skills quickly. Te drills below have been spilt into two categories, which are speed drills and agility/quickness drills.

Speed Drills Speed training or sprint training will help to improve you speed off the mark, acceleration and power. They should predominate during the late pre-season and during the in-season.

Guidelines Speed training is about quality rather than quantity. It should not leave you feeling physically exhausted. If more demanding exercises are intended for the same session (such as endurance work), complete these drills before hand. However, you should be thoroughly warmed up before completing any form of speed training. A typical speed session might consist of approximately 5 sets of 10 repetitions. Try to keep a work to rest ratio of 5:1. For example a 6 second sprint should be followed by approximately 30 seconds walking recovery. See section 3.2 of Total Soccer conditioning for sample sessions incorporating some of the drills in this section.

Drills With The Ball Speed drills are often more effective without the involvement of a ball. In order to become faster, players must concentrate on sprinting as quickly as possible and a ball usually hinders this. If a ball is incorporated, keep contact minimal as in the drills below.

Drill #1 – Alternating Starts (Team) The basis of these speed drills is a 10-20 meter/yard sprint. You should focus on accelerating as quickly as possible by powering away with your arms and legs. At the end of the sprint have a feeder pass or throw a ball for a pass, header or volley back. This helps players to compose themselves quickly after an all-out sprint so they can perform the skill with finesse. This is a frequent scenario in a game situation. See drill #4 below for ways to vary and progress this drill.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Speed & Agility Drills

Drill #2 – Hollow Sprint with Ball (Team & Individual) Set up five markers about 30 meters/yards apart. Place a ball at marker 2 and marker 4. Starting on marker 1, sprint to marker 2, dribble the ball to marker 3, sprint to marker 4, dribble the ball to marker 5. Walk back to the start replacing the balls at cones 4 and 2 as you do. Note: To make this drill work for a group, simply add an extra marker to one end and have two equal groups at either end. A player from group A performs the drill leaving the balls at markers 3 and 5. They join the back of group B. The first player from group B performs the drill by sprinting from marker 6 to marker 5 and so on, leaving the balls at markers 4 and 2. They then join the back of group A. See the diagram below.

30 meters/yards

Group A

1

2

3

4

5

6

Group B

Jog with ball Sprint

Drill #3 – Basic Sprint with Ball (Team & Individual) Sprint 30 meters/yards with the ball. Focus on taking fewer and heavier touches so speed is relatively unhindered. In a game situation, players (particularly wide players) can often find large areas of space to run into behind the defence. Taking too many touches will allow defending players to recover. There is a real skill in being able to knock the ball 10-15 yards ahead without kicking it out of play or too close to opposing players. See drill #4 for various sprint starts.

Drills Without The Ball Drill #4 – Alternating Starts (Team & Individual) The basis of these speed drills is a 10-20 meter/yard sprint. You should focus on accelerating as quickly as possible by powering away with your arms and legs. For team sessions, make it more interesting by have 2 or 3 players sprint against each other. Alternate the start for each successive sprint to make the drill more soccer-specific. Here are some ideas: •

Do 1-3 push ups, squat thrusts or burpees and sprint

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Soccer Exercise Library

• • • • •

Speed & Agility Drills

Start by kneeling, lying face down, sitting on your hands (which can’t be used to get up) and sprint Do 5 keep ups or 5 ball touches and sprint Have some one throw or pass your the ball for you to control and lay off and sprint Run backwards for 5yards and turn and sprint Touch left hand down, touch right hand down, jump to head the ball and sprint

Complete a sprint and walk slowly back to the start to repeat for the desired number of repetitions. Drill #5 – Alternating Stride Length (Team & Individual) Set up a series of cones in a straight line. The first 10 cones should be about 1 meter/yard apart. The next 10 should be 2 meters/yards apart. From standing start sprint the total length of the cones taking one step between each marker. The cones close together will encourage faster, shorter strides. You can gradually the distance between cones as you progress. Walk slowly back to the start to recover.

Drill #6 – Hollow Sprints (Team & Individual) Sprint for 30 meters/yards, jog for 30 meters/yards, sprint for 30meters/yards, jog for 30meters/yards. Walk slowly back to the start. Drill #7 – Downhill Sprints (Team & Individual) Running down a light hill will help to develop leg speed and co-ordination. It’s often called over-speed training. A small grassy embankment is ideal as long as it’s not so steep that you need to brake as you run. You should be able to run at full speed without feeling like you will fall over. Keep distances to 10 meters/yards and walk slowly back to the start. Drill #8 – Uphill Sprints (Team & Individual) Running uphill will help to develop acceleration power. The incline can be steeper for downhill sprints. Some professional and semi-professional clubs take their players to the beach during pre-season and perform this drill on a sand dune. Keep distances short (10 meters/yards) and allow plenty of time to recover. Drill #9 – Accelerating Sprint (Team & Individual) Starting on one goal line, gradually accelerate to reach full speed at the halfway line and continue to sprint to the edge of the opposite penalty area. Gradually slow down to the goal line, turn and slowly walk/jog back to the start.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Speed & Agility Drills

Drill #10 – Liverpool Sprints (Team) Set up a series of cones about 20 meters/yards apart in a circle formation (see diagram below). Place two players on each cone. On one cone only there should be six players. This is the starting point. In the group of six, four players sprint to cone 1. When they reach cone 1 the back two players wait at cone 1 while the front two players carry on to cone 2. They are also joined by the two players originally at cone 1. In effect, each pair sprints the length of two cones and rests. This is continued right around the circle.

Cone 1

20 meters/yards between cones

Start

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Soccer Exercise Library

Speed & Agility Drills

Agility & Quickness Drills Agility and quickness training allows you to change direction without the loss of balance and speed and will also help to improve your foot speed and coordination.

Guidelines As with speed drills, agility and quickness drills are not meant to be physically demanding. The movements should be very high quality and best performed when players are fresh. Perform some agility drills alongside the speed drills above. They can also be worked into other training sessions or used as part of an extended warm up. As with speed drills, keep the work to rest ratio to roughly 5:1. For example a 5 second sprint should be followed by approximately 25 seconds walking recovery. There is no need to time this with a stopwatch. The goal is to simply avoid a build up of lactic acid.

Drills With The Ball Drill #1 – Over-Under Hurdle (Team) Set up a course according to the diagram below. Two sets of hurdles are placed 10 meters/yards outside the penalty area. Group A are designated attackers and group B defenders. A ball is placed on the edge of the goal area. On the coaches command, a player from each team sprints to the first hurdle, jumps it, sprints to the next hurdle and under it before sprinting to a ball on the edge of the box. If the defender wins they clear the ball. If the attacker wins they shoot at goal.

Group A

Group B

10 meters/yards

10 meters/yards

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10 meters/yards

Soccer Exercise Library

Speed & Agility Drills

Variation: Add alternate starts such as lying, sitting on hands, facing backwards etc.

Drill #2 – Three V One (Team) Mark an area approximately 12 meters/yards by 12 meters/yards. Divide into groups of four players. One player is designated as the defender who must try to steal the ball from the other three attacking players. The attackers may take no more than two touches. This drill forces the defending player to move and turn quickly. The player in possession must think quickly to avoid being disposed. When the defender intercepts the ball or it travels outside the area, an attacker takes the defender’s place.

Drill #3 – Speedy Feet (Team & Pairs) Split the group into pairs. Each pair has three soccer balls. One ball is placed in front of you, one to the left and one to the right no more than 1 meter/yard away. The other player gives each ball a name or number and calls out a series of commands. You must touch the top of each ball with both feet (alternately, not jumping onto the ball!) in the order of the command.

One. A. Jack.

Three. C. King. Two. B. Queen.

For example, the caller might give the command “one, three, two, one”. Alternatively, they might shout “Queen, King, King Queen, Jack”.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Speed & Agility Drills

Drill #4 – Number Dribbles (Team & Individual) Set out a course according to the diagram below. Cones are used to mark out a series of numbers in varying sizes. Split the team into groups or two or three and have each player run with the ball around the number or figure. Each player performs the figure once before moving onto the next figure.

Note: Set out as many figures as you want and vary the heights so players are required to work over varying distances

Drill #5 – Pass and Move (Team) Set up a course according to the diagram below. A server (yellow) stands at each cone with a ball. As the player (blue) sprints towards the server they receive a pass and play it back with one touch. They sprint around the back of the receiver and on to the next receiver. When each player has performed the drill three times, change the groups over.

10 meters/yards

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Soccer Exercise Library

Speed & Agility Drills

Note: The emphasis of speed should be as soon as the ball is played. Players are encouraged to focus on a sharp burst of acceleration as soon as the ball is passed back to the receiver. Drill #6 – Agility T Drill (Team & Pairs) Set up a series of cones similar to the diagram below. In pairs, one player acts as the server (yellow). Start by sitting down cross-legged. The drill begins with the server throwing the ball for you to get up quickly and volley back. Immediately side step to the right and back. The server should throw the ball for you to knee or chest back. Immediately side step to the right and back. The server should bounce the ball for you to pass back. Immediately run backwards and back to the start this time to head the ball back to the receiver. Change places.

5 meters/yards

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Soccer Exercise Library

Speed & Agility Drills

Drills Without The Ball Drill #7 – Sprint Lateral Shuffle (Team & Individual) Set up a series of markers similar to the diagram below. Starting at the first marker sprint to the second marker and side step to the third marker. Continue until the end. Rest and repeat in the other direction so side steps lead with opposite foot.

10 meters/yards between cones

Side step Sprint

Drill #8 – Box Drill (Team & Pairs) Mark out a square approximately 10 meters/yards by 10 meters/yards. Place a cone in the center of the square. This is the starting position. Each corner is given a number or name. The coach or training partner calls out a number or name at random and you must run to the corresponding corner and return to the center.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Speed & Agility Drills

One / A / Jack

Four / D / Ace

Two / B / Queen

Three / C / King

As a variation two players can use the square at once. One player is labelled A and the other B. The coach calls out two numbers. Player A must run to the corner corresponding to the first number and player B to the second number. This drill sounds complicated but it’s easy to implement and it’s excellent for getting players to concentrate.

Drill #9 – Follow The Leader (Team & Pairs) Mark out an area about 10 meters/yards by 10 meters/yards. In pairs, one player runs randomly within the marked area. The other player must follow maintaining no more the 2 meters/yards distance. The leader should be changing direction and pace constantly. Two sets of pairs can be added to the area so players must be conscious of what’s around them also.

Drill #10 – Agility Ladder Drills (Team & Individual) Agility ladders are excellent for improving foot speed, co-ordination and overall quickness. They can cost anywhere from $30 for shorter ladders to over $100 for more elaborate designs. An alternative is to either make your own with some white parcel string and a few soccer net pegs (make sure the pegs are pushed flush into the ground). Alternatively, you can paint a simple ladder pattern on grass with some white wash or use white adhesive tape (masking tape). Each section of the ladder should be about 1.5 feet square and ten sections is ample.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Speed & Agility Drills

Hop Scotch • • • • • •

Start with your feet hip width apart at the bottom of the ladder Jump up with both feet and land on the left foot only in the first square Immediately push off with your left foot and land with both feet in the second square Immediately push off with both feet and land on your right foot only Push off from your right foot and land on both feet. Repeat this pattern for the full length of the ladder

In-Out • • •

• •

Start with your feet hip width apart at the bottom of the ladder Step into the first square with your left foot first, immediately followed by your right foot With your left foot step outside to the left the second square, then immediately step outside the second square with your right foot Step back into the third square with your left foot first, followed by your right foot. Repeat this pattern in fluid motion for the length of the ladder

Lateral Feet Drill • •







Start with both feet outside of the first square and to the left Step into the first square with your left foot first, immediately followed by your right foot... in a 1-2 motion Step to the right, outside the first square again with your left foot fist, followed by your right Now step diagonally left into the second square, with the left foot leading always keeping the same 1-2 motion Now step out to the left-hand side of the second square and repeat for the full length of the ladder

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Soccer Exercise Library

Speed & Agility Drills

The Tango • •

• •



Start with both feet outside of the first square and to the left Cross your left leg over your right and into the centre of the first square. Your right leg should immediately follow to the right of the first square, followed by your left leg It's a 1-2-3 motion like you're dancing From here your right foot comes across your left and into the centre of the second square as the pattern is repeated in the opposite direction Repeat for the full length of the ladder

Five Count • •



• •



Start with your feet hip width apart at the bottom of the ladder Step out to the right of the first square With your right foot immediately followed by placing your left foot into the first square Bring your right foot along side your left in the first square then step into the second square with your left foot immediately followed by the right Count these first five steps in a 1-2-3-4-5 manor Reverse the sequence by stepping out to the right of the third square with your left foot Repeat for the full length of the ladder

Drill #11 – Super Shuttle (Team & Individual) Set a series of cones out in a cross formation. See the diagram below. Run backwards to the center cone, side step to the right cone (or your left as you look at it on the diagram), side step back to the centre cone still facing the same way. At the center cone turn and sprint forward to the end cone. Now run back to the center cone, side step to the right, side step back to the center, then turn and sprint back to the start.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Speed & Agility Drills

10 meters yards

5 meters/yards

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SECTION 4

FLEXIBILITY EXERCISES

Soccer Exercise Library

Flexibility Exercises

Good flexibility helps players to become faster and more powerful. It also plays an important role in injury prevention by increasing range of movement and decreasing muscle tightness. The flexibility exercises below are split into two groups, which are static stretches and dynamic stretches.

Static Stretching Exercises Static stretching is one of the safest and most effective ways to increase both static-passive flexibility AND dynamic flexibility. It’s best to perform these types of stretches at the end of a training session or game when the body is completely warm and muscles are most receptive to changing length.

Guidelines • • • • • • • •

You should be thoroughly warmed up before performing these exercises Stretch to just before the point of discomfort The feeling of tightness should diminish as you hold the stretch Breath out into the stretch. Avoid breath holding Hold each stretch for 10-30 seconds If tightness intensifies or you feel pain stop the stretch Shake out limbs between stretches Complete 2-3 stretches before moving onto the next exercise

Stretch #1 – Neck Forward Tuck chin down towards chest as you breathe out. Hold and slowly return to start.

Stretch #2 – Neck To Side Facing directly forward, tip your head to one side. Return to start and repeat other side.

Stretch #3 – Neck Turn Facing directly forward, turn your head to right and hold. Return to start and repeat other side.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Flexibility Exercises

Stretch #4 – Shoulder & Chest This can be performed kneeling or standing. Clasp hands behind back and straighten arms. Raise hands as high as possible and bend forward from the waist and hold.

Stretch #5 – Arm Across Chest Place one arm straight across chest. place hand on elbow and pull arm towards chest and hold. Repeat with other arm.

Stretch #6 – Hand On Shoulders Place both hands on shoulders and push elbows back as far as possible. Hold for 10-30 seconds.

Stretch #7 – Triceps Stretch Place one hand behind back with elbow in air. Place other hand on elbow and gently pull towards head. Hold and repeat with other arm.

Stretch #8 – Knees To Chest Lying on back pull both knees into chest and hold. Hands should be on hamstrings as shown and not on knees.

Stretch #9 – Curl Up With feet flat on ground, grab knees and pull to stretch upper back. Place chin towards chest and hold.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Flexibility Exercises

Stretch #10 – Knee To Chest Similar to stretch #8 only stretching one leg at a time.

Stretch #11 – Low Back Twist Sitting down with legs outstretched straight, place palms on floor and twist to one side. Use hands to increase the stretch and hold. Repeat for other side.

Stretch #12 – Glute Stretch Sitting on floor with right leg bent, place right foot over left leg. Place left arm over right leg so elbow can be used to push right knee. Hold and repeat for other side.

Stretch #13 – Seated Groin Sit with legs bent and soles together. Gently press knees down to increase Stretch.

Stretch #14 – Adductor Stretch Stand with feet as wide apart as is comfortable. Shift weight to one side as knee bends. Reach towards extended foot and hold. Repeat for other side. Stretch #15 – Seated Hamstring Sitting on the floor with both legs outstretched, bend from the waist and try and reach your toes. Keep legs straight and feet together and hold.

Stretch #16 – Single Leg Hamstring Similar to stretch #15 only with one leg outstretched. Hold and repeat with the other leg.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Flexibility Exercises

Stretch #17 – Hamstring & Glute Lying on your back, bend one knee and pull the other knee towards your chest. Try to straighten your leg as far as possible while holding your thigh in place. Hold and repeat with the other leg.

Stretch #18 – Lying Quadriceps Lying on your left side bend your right leg behind you and grab the bottom of your leg (just above ankle). Pull heel into buttocks and hold. Repeat with the other leg.

Stretch #16 – Standing Quadriceps Standing on one leg grab the bottom of one leg (just above ankle). Pull heel into buttocks and push the hips out. Your thigh should be perpendicular to the ground. Hold and repeat with the other leg. Stretch #17 – Hip Stretch Stand with one foot about 3 feet in font of other. Bend front leg 90 degrees and keep back leg extended. Hold and repeat with other leg.

Stretch #18 – Standing Calf Place feet in front of each other about 18 inches apart. Keep back leg straight and heel on the floor. Push against a wall to increase the stretch. Hold and repeat with other leg.

Stretch #19 – Single Leg Calf Standing with feet together, bend to place hands on ground. Let right knee bend slightly and keep left leg straight with heel flat on ground. Hold and repeat with other leg

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Soccer Exercise Library

Flexibility Exercises

Stretch #20 – Inside Ankles Gently roll ankles inwards and hold.

Stretch #21 – Outside Ankles Gently roll ankles outwards and hold.

Dynamic Stretching Exercises Dynamic stretching is ideal as part of a pre-match or pre-training warm up. Recent research recommends dynamic stretching ahead of static stretching during the warm up to aid performance and prevent injury.

Guidelines Perform dynamic stretches at the start of a training session or pre-game warm up. They should follow 5-10 minutes of light aerobic exercise so the body is completely warm. You can also incorporate the drills and movements below into agility sessions. Dynamic stretching exercise should be performed in sets of 5-10 repetitions.

Stretch #1 – Arm Swings & Circles Standing with feet shoulder width apart, extend the arms out to the sides and then bring them across the chest. This stretches the chest and shoulder muscles. Another good upper body dynamic stretch is to make large circles again crossing the arms in front of your body.

Stretch #2 – Side Bends This stretch loosens the torso and upper back muscles. Place one hand by your side and the other above your head. Reach down to one side as far as is comfortable and then immediately repeat to the other side switching the position of your arms as you do. [ Page 68 ]

Soccer Exercise Library

Flexibility Exercises

Stretch #3 – Carioca This stretch helps the muscles surrounding the hip joint and the lower back to release. Moving in a sideways direction start by putting your right leg across your left (as in the diagram). The next step is with your left foot to the side. Now step with your right leg behind your left leg. The result looks something like a salsa dance! Stretch #4 – Funny Walk To stretch the hamstrings dynamically walk with out bending the knees, attempting to touch each foot with each stride.

Stretch #5 – High Knees To stretch the hip extensors dynamically, walk bringing the knees as close to the chest as possible.

Stretch #6 – Walking Lunges This stretch is superb for stretching the hip flexors which can become tight in soccer players. With hands clasped behind your head walk with an exaggerated lunging movement. Be sure to keep your trailing knee off the floor.

Stretch #7 – Inside Leg This stretch is very similar to static stretch #7 above. The difference is that the stretch is not held in position. Instead shift your weight from side to side (without bouncing) so that the left leg is stretched then the right and so on.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Flexibility Exercises

Stretch #8 – High Knee to Ball Have a partner hold a soccer ball at waist height and try to touch the ball with alternating high knees. The movement should be kept rhythmical and continuous by bouncing on your toes gently in between each high knee. Change places after 1 minute.

Stretch #9 – High Toe to Ball As with the drill above have a partner hold a ball at waist/chest height. Try to touch the bottom of the ball alternating with each foot. You should be bouncing gently on your toes rather than staying flat footed throughout the drill. Continue for 1 minute and change places. Stretch #10 – Round House With a partner holding a ball at arms length lift your right foot over and around the top of the ball in an anticlockwise direction. Now take the same foot over and around the ball in a clockwise direction. Repeat for a total of 10 “roundhouse” kicks and repeat on the left leg.

Stretch #11 – Straight Leg Volley Have a partner throw a ball for you to volley back at about waist height. Keep your leg straight and use the inside of the foot. You may have to adjust your position to the side so you are further away from the ball in order to avoid bending the knee. Repeat 10 times for each leg and repeat for the other leg.

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SECTION 5

FITNESS TESTS

Soccer Exercise Library

Fitness Tests

Soccer is an intricate blend of endurance, strength, power and speed. A fitness test battery should include assessments that measure each of these components. Ideally, each test must also replicate the same energy demands and movement patterns within the game. Taking endurance as an example, a running test is more appropriate than a cycle ergometer test. An intermittent running test (such as the multistage shuttle run) is more suitable than a continuous than a continuous run. There is nothing to stop you from making your own tests up! Be sure to make a precise and detailed note how your test was performed so that it is repeatable. Here are a selection of well-established fitness tests that are appropriate for soccer. See section 6 of Total Soccer conditioning for more details.

Aerobic Endurance Tests There are a number of field tests that measure aerobic endurance power. They are simple to perform, require little or no equipment and are reasonably accurate. They also allow coaches to test large groups of players simultaneously. An endurance test is usually one of the last assessments in the test battery as it is the most exhausting.

Test #1 - Hoff Shuttle Run This recently devised test is based on a dribbling circuit and results show a strong correlation to laboratory testing for maximum oxygen uptake. A recommendation is provided that under-15 soccer players should be able to cover more than 2100m in the Hoff test. The diagram below shows the circuit. There is no formula to convert to a score to VO2max but for practical purposes VO2max is not needed anyway.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Fitness Tests

30 meters 25 meters 7 meters 10 meters

7 meters

Hurdles 30-35cm high 10 meters

7.5 meters

10 meters

Cones 2 meters apart

Backward dribbling

10 meters

3-meter gate

15 meters

12 meters 10 yards/meters between cones START 30 meters

Players perform the circuit for 10 minutes. The total number of circuits and the point on the final circuit is noted. Players dribble a ball around the first set of cones and up to the three hurdles. They pass the ball through the hurdle while jumping over it being careful not to knock the ball too far ahead. They must the navigate the nest series of cones as quickly as possible. They dribble backward up to the 3-meter gate and then back to the start. Overall this is an excellent soccer-specific endurance test and one of the few to incorporate a ball.

Test #2 - Multistage Shuttle Run This test involves continuous running between two cones 20m apart in time to recorded beeps. The time between beeps decrease every minute forcing the players to speed up. Each minute is called a ‘level’. The player must reach

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Soccer Exercise Library

Fitness Tests

each cone at or before the bleep. If they are short a warning is given and they must catch up. If they fail to reach the next cone in time the test is ended. There are several versions of the multistage shuttle test; the most common version has an initial running speed of 8.5 km/hr and increases by 0.5 km/hr every minute. The player records the number of levels and shuttles. This score can then be converted into a value for VO2max with a table supplied with the test kit should it be required. You can get the multistage shuttle test (tape or cd recording and conversion chart) from several specialist stores online. You will also need a tape recorder/cd player, measuring tape, cones and recording sheets.

Test #3 – Cooper 12-Minute Run This test simply involves running continuously for 12 minutes. If you have access to a standard, 400 meter athletic track, use that to measure the distance. Alternatively run around the perimeter of a soccer pitch. You should know the dimensions of the pitch either in yards or meters. Either way, use the same track/pitch each time you test. Use one of the following formulas to predict VO2max:

For distance in Meters... 0.0225 x meters covered minus 11.3 For distance in Yards... 0.0206 x yards covered minus 11.3

For example, if you covered 3000 meters... 0.0225 x 3000 - 11.3 = 56.2 ml/kg/min Compare your result to that of professional and semi-professional footballers in section 6.2.1 of Total Soccer Training

Test #4 – Balke 15-Minute Run Very similar to the Cooper run except that you must run for 15 minutes continuously. The difference is that you must try to maintain a constant pace which is less specific to the game of soccer. Again, note the final distance and use the table below to elicit VO2max:

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Soccer Exercise Library

Fitness Tests

Balke 15-Minute Run Distance (meters)

VO2max (ml/kg/min)

6000 5600 5200 4800 4400 4000

80.0 75.0 70.0 65.5 61.0 56.5

Test #5 - Rockport Test This test is less specific for soccer and is more suitable for players recovering from injury. You can also predict a value for VO2max from the results. The Rockport test involves walking for 1 mile (1600 meters) as quickly as possible. It’s easiest to measure and track the distance on a standard 400 meter athletic track. At the end of the test record the time taken and heart rate. To convert the score into a value for VO2max go to: http://www.sport-fitness-advisor.com/endurancetests.html You will find an online calculator that allows you to enter your age, weight, time and heart rate.

Strength & Power Tests To measure a player’s strength accurately it’s important to conduct a few different assessments. One measures maximal or basic strength. A second test measures strength endurance and a third test will measure explosive power. Remember that the order in which these tests are performed is important. Maximal strength and power assessments should preceded strength endurance testing, which is more fatiguing. It’s also important to leave at least five to ten minutes between tests so you are fully rested.

Test #1 – One Repetition Maximum (1-RM) The one rep max (1-RM) is still considered the 'gold standard' of strength tests by most coaches. The procedure usually consists of the bench press and leg press. Both of these are compound movements incorporating most of the large muscle groups in the upper and lower body. However, you may want to

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Soccer Exercise Library

Fitness Tests

perform a 1-RM test on the leg extension and hamstring curl as these movements closely match a kicking action. You could also test each leg unilaterally (one at a time) to compare strength in the right side compared to the left. Free weights are usually more appropriate than weight machines for sportsspecific strength training. However, if you plan to train using machines then test on machines also. Remember that the two different type of equipment will produce slightly different physical adaptations. Testing Procedure 1. Warm up thoroughly with light aerobic exercise and 10 minutes of stretching to all major muscle groups. 2.Chose a weight that you think is about 90% to 100% of your 1-RM. 3. Perform the exercise making sure a coach or training partner is there to sport you. 4. Rest for at least 5mins. 5. Add as small a weight increment as possible and try again. Remember to have your spotter with you. 6. Keeping resting and repeating until you find a weight that you can't quite manage on your own. The weight before that is your 1-RM. Take your 1-RM weight for the bench press and leg press and divide it by your body weight. So for example if you leg pressed 300lbs and you weigh 175lbs your score is 1.7. Check your score with the table below:

Relative One Repetition Maximum Results Bench Press

Poor

Fair

Average Good

Male

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4+

Female

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

Male

1.4

1.8

2.0

2.4

2.8

Female

1.2

1.4

1.8

2.0

Excellent

Leg Press

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2.2

Soccer Exercise Library

Fitness Tests

Test #2 – Push-Up Test Along with the sit up test below, the push-up test is a standard field assessment for measuring strength endurance. The aim is to complete as many full push-ups as possible in one minute. Men should perform a standard push up while for women push-ups with bent knee support (i.e. weight on knees rather than toes) are more suitable. Use the table below to measure your score:

Push-Up Test Results Push Ups

Poor

Fair

Male

10

20

30

40

50+

Female

10

20

30

40

50+

Average Good

Excellent

Test #3 – Sit-Up Test Complete as many full sit-ups in one minute as possible. A full sit-up should be performed and not a crunch. Knees should be bent with feet flat on the ground. Hands should rest against temples rather than behind the neck. Use the table below to measure your score:

Sit-Up Test Results Push Ups

Poor

Fair

Male

20

30

40

50

60+

Female

20

30

40

50

60+

Average Good

Excellent

Test #4 – Standing Long Jump Along with the standing vertical jump the long or broad jump is an accepted assessment for ultra-short term power. Testing Procedure 1. Mark out a line and stand with your feet slightly apart. 2. Taking off and landing with both feet, swing your arms and bend your knees to jump forward as far as possible.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Fitness Tests

3. Measure the distance in meters. Rest fully and repeat for a total of 3 jumps. Take the longest of the three trials as your final score. 4. Compare your results with the table below:

Standing Long Jump Results Push Ups

Poor

Fair

Average Good

Excellent

Male

3.0m

Female

2.8m

Test #5 – Standing Vertical Jump This is a good test for soccer because it measures jumping power relevant for heading ability. It’s also useful for goalkeepers. You will require some powdered chalk for this test. Testing Procedure 1. Chalk your hand and stand next to a wall side on. Keeping your feet flat on the ground, reach up as high as possible and make a mark. 2. Relax for a moment. Bend your knees to right angles and jump as high as possible making a second mark on the wall. 3. Measure the distance between the two marks. Rest fully and repeat 3 times. Take the best score over the three trials and compare your result with the table below:

Standing Vertical Jump Results Push Ups

Poor

Fair

Average

Good

Excellent

Male

65cm

Female

55cm

* Professional soccer players average 60cm

Jump height can also be converted into power using the following formula: Power = Body Mass (kg) x (4.9 x height jumped in meters)2 For example, a 176lb player (80kg) who jumps 50cm (0.5 meters) would have 480kg-m of power:

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Soccer Exercise Library

Fitness Tests

80 x (4.9 x 0.5)2 = 80 x 2.452 = 80 x 6.0 = 480kg-m

Speed & Agility Tests As with strength, it’s beneficial to have a few different speed tests to measure different aspects of agility and quickness in soccer. These could include a pure speed test over a short distance, a speed endurance test and an agility test. Speed tests should occur towards the beginning of the test battery. Because they are so short, they won’t hinder other subsequent tests but results will be less reliable if you try to perform speed assessments after a long endurance run for example.

Test #1 – 30-Meter Sprint Test This test is used to measure acceleration and speed off the mark. A longer distance isn’t relevant to soccer where players rarely run flat out for more than 20-30 meters/yards. Testing Procedure 1. Set up 2 cones 30 meters apart starting at one cone. 2. On a signal of “Marks – Set – Go” sprint to the other cone as quickly as possible. 3. Have a training partner record the time. 4. Rest fully and repeat three times. Take your best time as the result. Any time under 5.0 seconds is good. Professional soccer players average 4.0 seconds.

Test #2 – 30-Meter Sprint Fatigue Test Soccer players are often required to produce back-to-back sprints during a game. This test measures sprint fatigue or speed endurance. It’s made more soccer-specific by adding in a deviation. For this test you will require 12 cones, a stopwatch and training partner to record times.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Fitness Tests

5 meters 5 meters

B

A 10 meters

Testing Procedure 1. Set up the cones according to the diagram above. 2. Sprint from A to B through the cones as quickly as possible deviating 5 meters sideways. Have your training partner record the time. 3. Slow down over 10 meters and jog slowly back to A taking 30 seconds to do so. 4. Repeat the sprint again immediately. 5. Complete a total of 10 sprints and have your training partner record all the times. 6. Subtract your fastest time from your slowest time. This is your sprint fatigue index. For example, if your slowest sprint was 7.5 seconds and your fastest was 6.9 seconds your sprint fatigue is 0.6. Use the table below to compare your results to professional players:

Sprint Fatigue for Professional Players

Average Range

Best Sprint

Ave. Sprint

Sprint Fatigue

6.80

7.10

0.64

6.53-7.01

6.83-7.31

0.15-0.92

Another useful way of interpreting the results is to take the average of the first 3 trials and divide it by the average of the last three trials. If your results were… 7.1s, 6.9s, 6.9s, 7.0s, 7.2s, 7.1s, 7.3s, 7.3s, 7.4s, 7.5s The average of the first three trials is 6.97s. The average of the last three trials is 7.40s.

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Soccer Exercise Library

Fitness Tests

6.97 ÷ 7.40 = 0.94 = 94% You can then compare your score with the table below:

Sprint Fatigue (%) Poor

Fair

18.8s

17.7-18.8s

16.8-17.6s

15.9-16.7s

23.4s

22.5-23.4s

18.7-22.4s 17.5-18.6s

View more...

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